Vaccine That Blocks the High From Heroin is Making Progress

A vaccine developed at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) to block the high of heroin has proven effective in non-human primates. This is the first vaccine against an opioid to pass this stage of preclinical testing.

“This validates our previous rodent data and positions our vaccine in a favorable light for anticipated clinical evaluation,” said study leader Kim Janda, the Ely R. Callaway Jr. Professor of Chemistry and member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at TSRI.

The vaccine works by exposing the immune system to a part of the heroin molecule’s telltale structure. This teaches the immune system to produce antibodies against heroin and its psychoactive products. The antibodies neutralize heroin molecules, blocking them from reaching the brain to cause a feeling of euphoria.

Researchers believe that blocking the high of heroin will help eliminate the motivation for many recovering addicts to relapse into drug use. In recent years, public health officials around the world have labeled heroin use as an epidemic.

The Janda Laboratory at TSRI has been working on their heroin vaccine for over eight years; the researchers had previously tested vaccine candidates under laboratory conditions and in rodents, where the strategy proved effective for neutralizing heroin.

For the new study in rhesus monkeys, the researchers redesigned their vaccine candidate to more closely resemble heroin, with the goal of better stimulating the immune system to attack this opioid.

The researchers found that the four primates that were given three doses of this vaccine showed an effective immune response and could neutralize varying doses of heroin. This effect was most acute in the first month after vaccination but lasted for over eight months. The researchers also found no negative side effects from the vaccine.

“We believe this vaccine candidate will prove safe for human trials,” Janda said. He pointed out that the components of the vaccine have either already been approved by the FDA or have passed safety tests in previous clinical trials.

Related posts: USA Health Care Crisis, Opioid AbuseSad Story Illustrates the Opioid Overdose Epidemic in the USAVermont to Treat Heroin Abuse as Health Issue Instead of Fighting “War” Against AddictsThe Death of Philip Seymour Hoffman Highlights the Increased Use of Heroin

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Vermont to Treat Heroin Abuse as Health Issue Instead of Fighting “War” with Addicts

Vermont Quits War on Drugs to Treat Heroin Abuse as Health Issue

[Governor] Shumlin urged the legislature to approve a new set of drug policies that go beyond the never-ending cat-and-mouse between cops and dealers. Along with a crackdown on traffickers, he proposed rigorous addiction prevention programs in schools and doctors’ offices, as well as more rehabilitation options for addicts. “We must address it as a public health crisis,” Shumlin said, “providing treatment and support rather than simply doling out punishment, claiming victory, and moving on to our next conviction.”

Representative Thomas Burditt… “As everybody knows, the war on drugs is lost, pretty much. It’s time to go down a new road.”

This is one small effort, among many, to find solutions instead of continuing the failed policies used for decades. Sadly those failed policies still dominate the efforts given by governments throughout the USA. The costs to the economy and personal lives of the people is enormous. We need to experiment to find better methods to reduce he harm done to society due to drug addiction.

Related: The Death of Philip Seymour Hoffman Highlights the Increased Use of HeroinPrescription Painkillers Kill More People Every Year in USA than Heroin and Cocaine CombinedDrug Treatment Funding Can More Than Pay For Itself With Reduced Crime Costs

The Causes of Drug Addiction are Complex

image of comic panels from rat addiction experiment

Comic panels, by Stuart McMillen, of the rat park drug addiction experiment, see the full comic.

The causes of drug addiction are not simple. Like many medical issues they are a complex interaction of factors.

Drug addiction: The complex truth by Tom Stafford

Many studies have shown rats and monkeys will neglect food and drink in favour of pressing levers to obtain morphine (the lab form of heroin). With the right experimental set up, some rats will self-administer drugs until they die. At first glance it looks like a simple case of the laboratory animals losing control of their actions to the drugs they need. It’s easy to see in this a frightening scientific fable about the power of these drugs to rob us of our free will.

But there is more to the real scientific story, even if it isn’t widely talked about. The results of a set of little-known experiments carried out more than 30 years ago paint a very different picture, and illustrate how easy it is for neuroscience to be twisted to pander to popular anxieties. The vital missing evidence is a series of studies carried out in the late 1970s in what has become known as “Rat Park”. Canadian psychologist Bruce Alexander, at the Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada, suspected that the preference of rats to morphine over water in previous experiments might be affected by their housing conditions.

Rats are smart, social creatures. Living in a small cage on their own is a form of sensory deprivation. Rat Park was what neuroscientists would call an enriched environment, or – if you prefer to look at it this way – a non-deprived one. In Alexander’s tests, rats reared in cages drank as much as 20 times more morphine than those brought up in Rat Park.

As the article notes more research is needed, but there should be more research into the importance of social environment on drug abuse and drug abuse treatment.

Related: Methods to treat addictionHow effective is drug addiction treatment in the USA?Prescription drug abuse in the USALooking at the evidence of treating alcoholism

2012 National Drug Control Strategy for the USA

The USA has published their 2012 National Drug Control Strategy. The intro from President Obama includes:

Illicit drug use in America contributed to an estimated $193 billion in crime, health, and lost productivity costs in 2007, the year for which the most recent estimate is available. In today’s challenging economic environment, we cannot afford such a drain on our economy and public resources. While difficult budget decisions must be made at all levels of government, we must ensure continued support for policies and programs that reduce drug use and its enormous costs to American society.

Research has documented that substance use disorder treatment is a sound public investment. For example, a 2006 study found that every dollar spent on treatment yielded an average of seven dollars in costs savings. The majority of these savings came from reduced criminal justice system involvement and increased employment earnings. **Benefit-cost in the California treatment outcome project: Does substance abuse treatment‘pay or itself’? Health Services Research, 41(1), 192-213, 2006**

Other studies document substantial cost-offsets in the healthcare domain alone . Another 2006 study reported a net savings of $2,500 per person per year in Medicaid costs associated with treatment, and a State of Washington report found that treatment yielded a con- servatively estimated $252 per person per month in cost reductions associated with medical care and state and community psychiatric hospitalizations. **The effect of substance abuse treatment on medicaid expenditures among general assistance welfare clients in Washington State, The Milbank Quarterly, 84(3), 555-576, 2006 and Washington State supplemental security income (SSI) cost-offset pilot project: 2002 progress report.

In 2010, an estimated 23.1 million Americans (9.1%) aged 12 or older needed specialized treatment for a substance use disorder, but only 2.6 million (roughly 11.2% of them) received it. We need to stop wasting money and lives and costing our society much more over the long term.

In 2010, over seven million people in the United States were under the supervision of the criminal justice system: over two million incarcerated and the remaining five million on probation or parole.

Compounding the significant expenditures on corrections is the fact that far too many offenders return to drug use and reenter the criminal justice system. Among state prisoners with substance use disorders, 53% had at least three prior sentences to probation or incarceration, compared to 32% of other inmates.

Many offenders deal with a chronic substance use disorder—a disease for which too many are inadequately treated. These offenders need effective substance use disorder and mental health treatment while incarcerated and should continue with recovery support services that assist with employment, housing, medical care, and other support upon their reentry into the community.

Related: UK Drug Policy Commission Recommends Decriminalizing Drug UseDrug Treatment Funding Can More Than Pay For Itself With Reduced Crime CostsImproving Addiction Treatment with The University of Wisconsin – Madison

Prescription Drug Abuse in the USA

Some key findings from the Council of State Governments study on Prescription Drug Abuse in America (from 2004). The report is obviously a bit outdated but the problem continues to grow.

  • More than 6.2 million people were current illicit users of prescription drugs in 2002.
  • In 2001, prescription drug abuse and misuse were estimated to impose approximately $100 billion annually in health care costs.
  • In Florida, there were 328 deaths attributed to heroin overdoses in 2001 compared to 957 deaths due to overdoses of the prescription pain medications. The trend continued in 2002, when more Floridians died from prescription drug overdoses than use of illegal drugs.

Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction from the NIH (revised in 2011).

Although most people take prescription medications responsibly, an estimated 52 million people (20 percent of those aged 12 and older) have used prescription drugs for nonmedical reasons at least once in their lifetimes.

The number of prescriptions for some of these medications has increased dramatically since the early 1990s. Moreover, a consumer culture amenable to “taking a pill for what ails you” and the perception of prescription drugs as less harmful than illicit drugs are other likely contributors to the problem. It is an urgent one: unintentional overdose deaths involving opioid pain relievers have quadrupled since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine.

Years of research have shown that addiction to any drug (illicit or prescribed) is a brain disease that can be treated effectively. Treatment must take into account the type of drug used and the needs of the individual. Successful treatment may need to incorporate several components, including detoxification, counseling, and sometimes the use of addiction medications. Multiple courses of treatment may be needed for the patient to make a full recovery.

Related: How effective is drug addiction treatment?Center for substance abuse treatment (US HHS)Brett Favre overcomes painkiller addiction

UK Drug Policy Commission Recommends Decriminalizing Drug Use

Decriminalise drug use, say experts after six-year study

A six-year study of Britain’s drug laws by leading scientists, police officers, academics and experts has concluded it is time to introduce decriminalisation.

The report by the UK Drug Policy Commission (UKDPC), an independent advisory body, says possession of small amounts of controlled drugs should no longer be a criminal offence and concludes the move will not lead to a significant increase in use.

The experts say the criminal sanctions imposed on the 42,000 people sentenced each year for possession of all drugs – and the 160,000 given cannabis warnings – should be replaced with simple civil penalties such as a fine, attendance at a drug awareness session or a referral to a drug treatment programme.

They also say that imposing minimal or no sanctions on those growing cannabis for personal use could go some way to undermining the burgeoning illicit cannabis factories controlled by organised crime.

But their report rejects any more radical move to legalisation, saying that allowing the legal sale of drugs such as heroin or cocaine could cause more damage than the existing drugs trade.

Abusive drug use should be a medical matter not a criminal one. The appropriate treatment options to provide people the change to regain their lives is what is needed; we don’t need to throw them in jail. Use the money saved from wasting people’s lives in jail and all the costs associated with that to help provide better drug abuse treatment options.

Related: The Rise and Fall of America’s First Prison for Drug AddictsStudy: Drug Treatment Success Rates in EnglandRussell Brand’s Testimony on Dealing with Drug AddictionPrinciples of Effective Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation

Drug Treatment Funding Can More Than Pay For Itself With Reduced Crime Costs

Some interesting details and data from Texas government web site.

Drug users constitute a large and growing proportion of the criminal justice population. Drug users not only commit a substantial amount of crime, but as the frequency of drug use increases, the frequency of crime increases and the severity of crimes committed also increases.

Drug use in the general population appears to have declined over the past decade, yet the number of drug-involved offenders is increasing. The number of convictions for drug violations in Texas has increased from 8,103 in 1980 to 23,126 in 1988, a 185 percent increase in less than ten years.

Estimates of lifetime drug users among the nation’s incarcerated population range from 80 to 87 percent.

The American Correctional Association notes that more than 95 percent of drug and alcohol offenders will be discharged from prison, most without receiving any treatment. Because of the high association between drug abuse and recidivism, it is in the public interest to place offenders in the kinds of treatment programs that have been found effective. A noticeable reduction in drug use and criminality can occur with an alliance between the criminal justice system and drug abuse treatment.

Public expenditures for drug abuse treatment are wise and prudent investments. Treatment works to reduce crime, drug abuse, and recidivism. Sustained reductions in recidivism can be achieved up to six years after treatment. With appropriate drug abuse treatment more than 75 percent of offenders with chronic substance abuse histories can reenter the community and lead socially acceptable life styles.

For every dollar spent for drug treatment, $11.54 is saved in social costs, including law enforcement costs, losses to victims, and government funds for health care.

Research has shown that funds invested in drug treatment reduces future criminal justice costs for treated offenders. Every dollar spent on residential drug treatment in probation saves $2.10 in future criminal justice costs. Every dollar spent on outpatient drug treatment in probation saves $4.28 in future criminal justice costs.

This is an old report, from 1997 but the basic model doesn’t change. A large amount of criminal activity is driven by drug addiction. To reduce crime in society drug addiction needs to be reduced. While success rates of drug addiction treatment centers are far from perfect the results more than pay for the cost – just in reduced crime costs (without even considering the better lives these people lead and the benefits to their children and loved ones).

Related: The Rise and Fall of America’s First Prison for Drug AddictsResults of 4 Year Study of Women in Drug TreatmentAlcohol is a Major Cause of Drug Rehab AdmissionsHow Effective is Drug Addiction Treatment?

Russell Brand’s Testimony on Dealing with Drug Addiction

Celebrity Russell Brand makes very intelligent comments to a UK government inquiry on how to deal with drug addiction problems. He was an addict and has been drug free now for years.

His main point seems to be that we need to take a pragmatic approach to what is a primarily a health problem not a criminal problem. Abstinence (all all drugs – including legal ones such as alcohol) based recovery is what he has succeeded with and he believes in. “I think what we need is love and compassion… because it deals with the problem and reducing crime”

Russell’s book, My Booky Wook, discusses this life including his drug use and recovery.

Related: Eminem’s ‘Relapse’ Explores His Drug Addition and RehabilitationPrinciples of Effective Drug Treatment and RehabilitationHow Effective is Drug Addiction Treatment?

Recovery High Schools

In 1989 the first recovery high schools in the USA began. The Ecole Novelle (now known as Sobriety High) and Peers Enjoying A Sober Education (PEASE Academy) were both started in started in the Minneapolis, Minnesota area, and are still operating today. Today, there are approximately 30 recovery high schools around the USA.

Sobriety High School.

Sober High (on PEASE)

Since 1989, educators have used the basement and Sunday school classrooms at University Lutheran Church of Hope on 13th Avenue SE. as a haven, and one of 15 recovery schools in Minnesota, with names such as Sobriety High or Solace Academy.

Heidi Judge, the school’s full-time chemical dependency counselor, has attended funerals of students killed by overdoses. She left behind the 30- and 90-day stints of treatment centers for the chance to work with students long-term.

PEASE takes an almost zero tolerance stance on drug and alcohol use, unless students come forward and confess their relapse. Last year, 80 percent of the students who walked through the door stayed clean.

“We can empathize, but we try not to enable,” Durchslag said.

“You don’t put your arm around the kid and say ‘Oh, poor little addict.’ If you choose to use, you choose to leave the school.”

Related: Association of Recovery SchoolsNew Jerusalem NowWhy Can’t Drug Addicts Quit on Their Own?Improving Addiction Treatment with The University of Wisconsin – Madison

Drug and Alcohol Abuse and Rehab Centres in Australia

There are many of reasons why people resort to abusing substances such as drugs or alcohol. People from different levels of society and from different age brackets fall into drug or alcohol addiction. Many use it for socialization or enjoyment but others tend to abuse it leading to addiction. Drug and alcohol rehabilitation is so easy to plan about but it is in fact so difficult to start with and to be able to sustain it. This is great challenge for addicts, and why avoiding the problem in the first place is far more preferable. But if you find yourself, or a loved one, addicted there is hope.

Substance abuse/addiction is considered as a disease and should be treated by a health care provider with specialization on this area in order to arrive at a proper treatment protocol for that particular stage that client maybe in. For whatever the reason and at whatever kind of lifestyle the abuser may have, the question is, “Is help readily available and accessible for them?”

The good news is that help is just around the corner. Once someone makes the decision they need to make a change, in order to put their life back on track the next step is choosing the right option for them from the available drug and alcohol detox centers.

Here are some Rehab Centres in Australia:
The Sanctuary Byron Bay
Location: Byron Bay 2481, Lismore
Specialization: Offers inspiration, advice and support for those who want to overcome addiction.

Banyan House
Location: Berrimah, NT 0828
Specialization: treatment for people recovering from alcohol and drug addictions and any co-occurring mental health disorders

Karobran
Location: Adelaide, Melbourne
Specialization: Residential programs with intensive assistance in addiction recovery and life skill watching with a Christian Philosophy.

Narcotics Anonymous of Victoria
Location: Victoria, Australia
Specialization: fellowship of recovering drug addicts

Related: Top 10 Luxury Rehab CentersBetty Ford Center